Thursday, March 30, 2017


"We are the children of many sires, and every drop of blood in us in its turn betrays its ancestor."
Ralph Waldo Emerson
I have dabbled with genealogy on and off for the better part of 15 years and always thought that it would be fun to discover that one of my distant ancestors had been knighted or awarded an English Lordship.  It's a harmless enough  fantasy that has actually happened -- to some other people.

There is something unique in genealogy research.  You never know what nugget of information lies hidden on the next page of journal text or what may suddenly explode on your computer screen with an unsuspecting click on a keyboard. That's probably what is so fascinating about it and what keeps us coming back. 
While some of those "nuggets" can be in the form of an exhilarating surprise discovery, others can be a heart-stopping, knock you to your knees revelation, the like of which you hope never rears its ugly head in any of your research. 

In piecing together information for The Wright Story, I was making great strides until one of those worse-case scenarios stopped me in my tracks like I had never been stopped before.  My stomach did a major flip-flop when the words "...possible convict ship immigrant"  lashed out at me like a boxer's left hook to the solar plexus. 

"Can't be," I gasped.  "Has to be a mistake...This only happens to other people." Stopping momentarily to catch my breath, I hastened to do a double check and then the terrible truth with verification of what I had uncovered...My Great-Great-Great Grandfather Henry Wright who immigrated to the New World from England in 1763, was a "convict". 

I pinched myself...Regretfully, I wasn't dreaming.  My first impulse was to turn off my computer and walk away from my paper-strewn study thinking that I would be well-advised to simply put an end to the project. Finito!!!  For crying out loud...I'm 79 years old and I found myself wondering what my late parents would think.  I poured a cup of coffee and sat down in the living room to rationalize the unexpected, shocking discovery.

The newspaper man in me recognized that while I was faced with an extremely bad news situation, it was still a good story, reflective of some of the injustices of our world 300 years ago.  I also knew enough about the character of Wright male stock to suggest that Henry was by no means a bad man and that I owed it to him to relay what I had uncovered all these years later. It was the (W)right thing to do!

This is Henry Wright's remarkable story, continually revised with new information as it comes to light...So, if interested, check back often.

Details on Henry Wright's childhood in England and his parentage have been difficult to trace, even the actual date of his birth has varied between 1745 and 1750, often preceded by the word "about".  
Parish register entries were very brief in the 1700s with few details. The main reason is that small populations at the time meant that most people knew everyone who lived in their community, and no one thought that we might be interested in tracing them some 400 years later. Baptismal records would simply give the date of baptism, the name of the child and the name of his/her father. Marriages just gave the couple’s names and date of marriage and burials simply gave the date of burial and the name of the deceased.

Research in this regard continues to be a work in progress, although I have little hope of solving much of the mystery surrounding the first third of Henry's life. His parents are believed to have been John and Margaret Wright of Wilesborough, Kent, England. There is also a hint that he had a younger brother, Samuel(?) who at some point in 1774 may also have ended up in Maryland or Pennsylvania as a "bonded" ship passenger. It stands to reason that Henry had little or no schooling in light of evidence that he worked as a child servant (footman) and was separated from his impoverished mother and father at a very young age, probably nine or ten. (See for explanation of the duties of a "footman".)
For all intents and purposes, it all begins 6th of July, 1763, with Henry, a mere teenager, sitting in a London court chambers and being found guilty of (get ready) grand larceny and theft.  He had been indicted, along with three friends, for stealing a bond and several promissory notes, the contents of a pocket book (wallet) belonging to a James Allen.

The transcript of the Old Bailey proceedings describe the rather convoluted testimony of both Henry and his accuser, the result of which led to the conviction of the youthful Wright and the subsequent release of his three friends. It was revealed in testimony that Henry actually gave the "book" back to Allen and that the "sealed" notes had not been opened. Still he was charged.
Character witnesses for Henry from Old Bailey
 Court records.

The sitting judge seemingly, was not influenced with the testimony of six character witnesses.  Thomas Marfleet said that he had known Henry most of his life.  "He was apprentice to a merchant at Boston in Lincolnshire; he has been in London for seven or eight years and lived as a gentleman's footman (domestic servant)...I looked upon him to be very honest, sober, industrious young man." 

Henry's punishment included next-day "transportation" to a New World penal colony, an epic journey across the Atlantic and into the unknown. In being sentenced to "transportation", Henry joined the ranks of thousands of others who could tell a similar story. Transportation to the American colonies constituted a major transformation in the lives of the people who received this punishment -- a transformation so profound that they probably never could have conceived of what was in store for them before it actually happened to them. 
British transportation convicts America bound,
including small children and teenagers like 
Henry Wright.
In 1717 Britain passed the Transportation Act. This law established a convict bond service as punishment for various offences in the form of penal transportation to the British colonies in North America and Australia. Paupers, petty thieves and criminals were sentenced to a seven-year convict bond service in the colonies. More serious crimes, including rebellion, were punished by a 14-year convict bond service sentence. Britain, it seems, had a rather cruel and unjust way of ridding itself of what in those days were considered young undesirables and law breakers.  First it was the offshore transporting of convicts, then it was the despicable shipment of thousands of British Home Children to hospices and boarding homes in other countries, primarily Canada and the U.S. 

The labour shortage in the colonies also encouraged the act of spiriting (ie kidnapping) children for work in the Americas, resulting in large numbers of children, especially from Scotland, being forcibly emigrated. This continued until its exposure in 1757, following a civil action against Aberdeen businessmen and magistrates for their involvement in the trade. The American War of Independence in 1783 meant an end to transportation to the American Colonies, and with the creation of the penal colony in New South Wales, Australia became the focus for child emigration, together with Canada and New Zealand.
The British government did not designate destinations for transportation convicts, but instead contracted merchants to ship them out. "Planters" in those colonies paid well, plus the merchants could pick up valuable return cargo (i.e. tobacco) while they were there.  The term "plantation" was applied to the large farms that were the economical basis of many of the American colonies. The labor supply from Africa (slaves) was expensive and farmers relied on indentured servants for labor. Transport convicts were bought cheaply from the merchants at the ports of landing. To encourage settlement of the colonies, the Crown granted land to colonists who paid for workers and other settlers under a head rights system.  So everyone made money off the backs of convicts shipped to the colonies.

After an ocean passage of three or four miserable months on the convict ship "Beverly", Henry arrived in the Americas in the late summer of 1763 and was immediately purchased as an indentured servant by a George Pierce, a wealthy land owner. It is not known if Pierce purchased Henry on the ship as it pulled into port in Virginia or if he was acquired from someone else soon thereafter. 

Research through thousands of reference books containing ships' passenger lists, genealogical registers and other official records led to the discovery of early Wright immigrants to the New World. Below is an extract from the reference book containing Wright immigrants, in this case Coldham, Peter Wilson, English Convicts in Colonial America.  New Orleans: Polyanthos, 1976 (Vol 2: London).  Here you see the name "Henry" (Wright), the port of entry or area of settlement and the page number where the name was found.  

Convicts confined in the hold of a ship.
A rare report on British convict transportation of the day, spoke of the poorest felons, who were kept in chains in the hold of the ship, in filthy conditions, poorly fed, and subject to life-threatening diseases. Many of them died on the voyage to the colonies. Of those who survived, the conditions of their servitude were frequently as bad as the voyage ever had been. William Eddis, a young Englishman who visited Maryland between 1769 and 1777, noted in a September 1770 letter that, while laborers were often victims of abuse, convicts made especially easy prey since they were "marked with the 'stamp of infamy." For that reason, he stated, if the convicts survived their servitude, most of them returned to Great Britain, while a few (like Henry Wright) who had learned to behave honestly moved to distant, less-populated areas and started anew while hoping to escape their pasts.
British convict transportation ship.
Today, historians of convict transportation to America have determined that of the 585,800 immigrants to 13 colonies during the years 1700-1775, about 52,200 were convicts and prisoners (nine percent of the total). During these same years, slaves by far constituted the largest group of immigrants (278,400; 47%), followed by people arriving with their freedom (151,600; 26%) and indentured servants (96,600).  Almost three quarters of all the people arriving in the American colonies during this time period did so without their freedom.

Henry appears spasmodically on American militia muster rolls during the Revolutionary War in the early 1770s all the while continuing to perform hard labor for his owner. In fact he may have been working on a Chester area farm (southwestern section of Pennsylvania) owned by Pierce when he met and fell in love with Mary Christina Klingensmith, the daughter of German/Pennsylvania-Dutch immigrants Daniel and Anna (Reitenauer) Klingensmith, who may well have lived on land nearby. Interestingly, these early settlers came from German-speaking areas of Europe and spoke a dialect of German referred to as "Deitsch" (Deutsch). 

While slave and indentured servant marriages were never recognized by law, their appearance in runaway advertisements provides telling evidence that masters recognized and allowed such unions.
Details of an actual marriage for Henry and Mary, if any, and living arrangements are unknown but during the summer of 1775 Henry must have hatched a plan to run away from Pierce.  With Mary and two infants in tow (one only 10 months old) Henry made good his escape.  
In a matter of days George Pierce posted an 8 pound reward in the Pennsylvania Gazette for the runaway Henry's return (see abstract to the right).  Henry's destination, and eventual location after his escape, other than the numerous documented references to Rutland, Tioga, remain somewhat of a mystery.  Regardless, he successfully remained free and the Wright family grew at a rate of one child every 16 months or so. 

Also in 1775, war broke out between the British and the American colonists. By 1776, the colonists had declared themselves independent and in 1783, following a prolonged and bloody war, Britain was forced to recognize the independence of the United States.  At some point in the ensuing 20 years the eldest Wright son, William, also became eligible for American army recruitment and when he chose to be loyal to his father's British roots, he was blacklisted as a "traitor" following the end of the war.

As previously mentioned, it is curious that all records pertaining to Henry and Mary have them coming from Rutland, Tioga County, Pennsylvania.  The problem is that Tioga County was not settled until 1806 and ultimately incorporated in 1828, the same year Rutland Township was formed, a good 30 years after the Wrights settled in Upper Canada.  In the 1770's the area was virtual wilderness, inhabited mostly by Indians but, come to think of it, an unlikely escape from the reach of George Pierce and bounty hunters. If the later adoption of Rutland, Tioga, Pennsylvania was intentional to mislead would-be pursuers and put distance between Henry and his past, it certainly worked. It is anyone's guess as to who was initially responsible for suggesting the Wright family came from Rutland Township in Tioga County -- and why.

At any rate, the ruse lasted a good 225 years.

Casting further doubt on the claim of settlement in Tioga is the fact that a treaty was made, on the 23rd day of October 1784, with the Indians, by which the territory now embraced in the counties of Bradford, Tioga, Potter, Clinton, Cameron, McKean Elk, Forest, Jefferson, Clearfield, Clarion, Armstrong, Butler, Beaver, Lawrence, Mercer, Venango, Crawford and Warren was ceded to Pennsylvania. At this time not single white man inhabited the domain of Tioga county. It had been the hunting ground of the savages for ages, and their paths were traceable in all directions; and when settlers began to invade their land on the waters of the Susquehanna these paths were used by the warriors of the Six Nations, and by the French in their strife for territory. The American scout in pursuit of the red man had penetrated the forests of Tioga, but not with the idea of settlement, for it was unquestionably Indian territory and guarded with jealousy and vigilance by the wily savage: and it was not until the treaty of 1784 at Fort Stanwix that the life of a white man was for a moment safe within its limits. In fact a Christian minister was the first white man to move into the territory after the signing of the treaty.

Tax and Exoneration records show a Henry Wright living on, or renting, 200 acres in Pitt Township, Pennsylvania, sometime between 1768 and 1801, which would seem to be more accurate.  Pitt County was located north of the Ohio River and west of the Alleghenry River in southwestern Pennsylvania.

Map showing the New World and its colonies in the 1790s.  Note: The proximity of Philadelphia to Port Detroit and the possibility of an overland route travelled by Henry Wright as he made his way into Canada.
With that as a backdrop, the lure of free Crown land in Upper Canada was just too great for a man now in his 40s and having spent his formative years laboring as a virtual white slave. Henry, Mary and their rapidly growing family eventually blended with civilian refugees from Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland and New York on a long trek to Fort Detroit in Michigan, some time in the late 1780's. The grueling, physically taxing journey must have taken many months, if not the better part of a year. There were virtually no roads or settlements for most of the trip and family goods were carried on the backs of pack horses.
Map showing the location of Malden Township
and Colchester South and North. 
Having eventually crossed the Detroit River, the designated "Loyalists" waited for lots in the new Colchester South settlement by renting farm plots from large landholders on Grosse Ile and Hog Island.  Henry and his family settled for two years on a Grosse Ile tenant farm held by the Macomb brothers who owned the island.  The Wrights left soon after, however, when it was realized that the island was not part of British North America. The next move was to the Big Creek area of Malden, where records show Lot 40 on Concession 4 being assigned to Henry.  Then again, we find "Henry Wright, a native of Old England" (as noted in land records) also obtaining Crown Lots 76 and 77 in Colchester in 1792. It has been documented that the initial lots were "slivers" of land backing onto the river and lake while block parcels were subsequently awarded more inland as the settlements grew.

All Ontario land belonged to the Crown after Britain gained control over France. To obtain Crown land, early settlers petitioned the Governor or his executive council. The petitions often include information on the petitioner's family and his military service. Henry's name shows up in a December 15, 1788, list of "disbanded troops and Loyalists to be settled on the north side of Lake Erie from Mill Creek, four miles from the mouth of the Detroit River to a small creek about a mile and a half beyond Cedar River."

Several historical summaries of the settlement also mention a "Wrights Inn" where soldiers in the Rebellion of 1837 were known to stop for a short rest.  The Inn sat on land that was the original grant to the Wrights by King George III. I am told that the Inn remained in the family well into the 20th century and I am determined to learn more about it.

Over the course of the next 40 or 50 years Land Registry records show Wright siblings -- Peter, Philip Jr., William, Arthur, and Salathiel -- also being granted lots by the Crown. 

Once settled, and after an almost 10-year break from child bearing, Mary gave birth in 1799 to her 11th (and final) child at 48 years of age. Henry had little better than 12 years on his land when he fell ill and passed away in 1813, taking the well-kept secret of his past with him. (All reports on record refer only to Henry Wright Sr. "immigrating to America as young man in 1763.")  Mary survived him by another 19 years, no doubt staying on in the homestead bequeathed to her by her late husband.
Wright Road as it is today in the Town of Essex, running
north from Erie Aire Beach Road to Gore Road.

In death, the senior Wright left behind one last mystery -- an apparent falling out with his second eldest son Philip, my great-great grandfather. The second sentence in Henry's last will and testament said it all: "Following, first of all, I give and bequeath unto my son Philip the sum of one Shilling Sterling..."

After the obvious and insulting opening salvo, the document went on to list substantial bequeaths to other immediate family members, i.e. the family home together with five farms on Lot 70 in Colchester Township including household furniture, cattle, husbanding tools and other worldly goods left to wife Mary and upon her death to be devised and bequeathed to sons William, Henry and Thomas; additional land on Lot 77 to William, Thomas and Henry Jr. with all remaining "movable" property to  be equally divided by daughters Sarah, Elizabeth, Mary, Martha and Catherine.  

Whatever caused the bad blood between Henry and Philip, surely left an unfortunate carryover rift in the large family for several generations.  We'll never know of the long-term implications.
First page of Henry's last will and testament
prepared in 1810 and mentioning his son

From the Botsford family records, I have learned that the aforementioned Henry Jr. jointly settled a "back" farm at Lot 25, Concession 3, Malden with Daniel Botsford in 1831.  The lot was later divided into two farms and the south property became Henry Jr.'s homestead.  By the early 1830s the original farms along the waterfront were all occupied and the back concessions began to open up, one of the first being the lot claimed by Henry Jr. and Daniel.  Henry Jr. would eventually be elected the first reeve of Malden Council in 1850.

I cannot help but wonder if Henry Sr. was ever able to make contact with his folks back home in England...Probably not, given the fact that the advent of a transcontinental postal service and telegraph messaging were many years down the road. Reports also refer to "a brother who stayed behind" when Henry embarked on his journey north but a name was never mentioned, leaving one to wonder if the sibling was in fact the aforementioned Samuel.  

Little would Henry and Mary dream that in 200 hundred years, four generations removed, a Richard Kenneth Wright would care enough to trace their pioneering footsteps with respect and new-found eternal appreciation and admiration.  

Great-Great Grandfather Philip, born to Henry and Mary in 1775, initially helped out on the family farm and moved quickly to acquire next-door Crown property on Concession 1 of Colchester South, Lot 75, prior to marrying his first wife Jane Anna Dowler, daughter of Irish immigrants Robert and Rebecca Dowler. Sixteen-year-old Jane Anna gave birth to a daughter, Anna (McCormick) in 1797 but may have died of complications soon thereafter (documented dates from several sources are extremely contradictory and confusing).  It is not known who raised tiny Anna (1797-1865) after the death of her mother, perhaps her grandparents, Rebecca and Robert Dowler.  It would appear that Anna was nurtured sufficiently to grow up eventually marrying into the McCormick family and having several children of her own.

Philip married again in 1801, this time to Delilah Malott of Grosse Ile, Mich., daughter of French immigrant parents, Joseph and Sarah Malott, tenant farmers on Grosse Ile. Remarkably, Philip was 11 years senior to the 15-year-old Delilah who gave birth to their first child when she was still 16. In that time period it was not unusual for young girls to be married by the age of 13 or 14 and if women were not married by the age of 25, it was socially humiliating. I suppose that the parents of young maidens did not object, because it would mean one less mouth to feed.

Philip and Delilah would go on to have nine more children, including my great grandfather Ebenezer Wright in 1818.

Under the Upper Canada Militia Act of March 16, 1808, all males between the ages of 16 to 60, capable of bearing arms, were ordered to enroll in the militia company in the area in which they lived.  The Canadian Militia Muster Rolls and Pay Lists, show great-great grandfather Philip Wright as a member of the Essex Light Infantry Regiment under the command of a Col. Reynolds. Henry Wright Jr. also signed up as a private in Captain Caldwell's Company of the 1st. Regiment, Essex County Militia.

The Upper Canadian militia were organized into Regiments, based on the "ridings" of each County, such as the 1st and 2nd Essex Militia based out of Essex County, Ontario. Normally in Upper Canada, militia units would meet once a year to receive minor military training. They would wear their own clothing and many armed themselves with their own weapons. At the instigation of Major General Isaac Brock, commanding in Upper Canada, each regiment formed two "flank companies", consisting of one captain, two subalterns, two sergeants, one drummer and thirty-five men, who were prepared to train six times per month. They were not paid, but were exempt from Jury duty or arrest in any civil case.
Depiction of soldier fighting Indians, War of 1812.

Between 1749 and 1885, both Essex and Kent militia were raised from time to time for specific tasks such as local defense of the garrison against First Nations in 1763 and expeditions into the frontier in 1778-80 during the American Revolutionary War. After that the militia took on a more formal battalion structure and in 1794 border tensions required their mobilization for combat in what is now Ohio.

During the War of 1812-15, the garrison at Fort Amherstburg was strengthened with the call out of the Regiments of Essex Militia and Kent Militia. After a brief incursion into Essex County the Americans returned to the safety of Fort Detroit. A combined force of Essex and Kent militia, British regulars, other Upper Canada militia and First Nations crossed the Detroit River and forced the surrender of Fort Detroit. A portion of the Prize Pay List for the 2nd Regiment of Essex Militia from this capture presently hangs in the Tilston Armoury, Windsor. For the next year the British and the militia of Essex and Kent fought in Michigan and Ohio. By June 1813 with their fighting done and farms in need of care the Essex and Kent militia regiments were dismissed home. Following the decisive American victory in October 1813 near Moraviantown in Kent County, many continued to fight in the Niagara region as the Essex and Kent militia or volunteered with other units.

The Essex and Kent volunteers mobilized for the Patriot War of 1838 and fought battles at Amherstburg, Fighting Island, Pelee Island and Windsor. At the time there were three regiments in each of the Essex and Kent militia. The Patriot War was the last time that Essex and Kent counties were invaded.


I cannot begin to imagine the hardships faced by two generations of Wrights and their broods as they established homesteads on Colchester South land over a 20-year period. The constant threat of American invasion from the south only compounded a difficult life. Their will, strength of spirit and fortitude are to be admired by those of us who have followed. 
Pioneer woman making bread.

Pioneer Loyalists like the Wrights used what the wild, virgin land provided.  The essential tool was the ax.  When a family of settlers arrived at the spot where they planned to make their home, they began chopping saplings and trimming poles to build a lean-to. Between two forked trees they laid a crosspole. With the help of horses they rolled up a log, which was banked with dirt to form a low back wall. Then they laid poles, slanted upward, from the back log to the crosspole. The sloping roof was covered with bark and branches. The ends of the lean-to were walled with shorter poles and pickets. This was the pioneers' "half-faced camp." It always faced south, away from wind and rain. In front of the open side they dug a fire pit. Logs smoldered there day and night, giving warmth and protection.

This served as a temporary home while the pioneer family prepared ground for their first crop. A real clearing took months of work, but a "deadening" could be done quickly. A few ax cuts were made in the tree trunks so that sap could not flow up to the branches. Soon the leaves withered, allowing sunlight to reach the damp soil. Seed corn was dropped into ax cuts in the ground. The crop from that crude planting provided food for the first winter.

Before winter came, the pioneer family hoped to have a small clearing and a snug cabin. The forest was the settlers' enemy—it had to be destroyed to create their fields. At the same time, it was their friend—it gave them logs for their cabin, fuel for their fire, rails for their fences, wheels for their wagon, and a frame for their plow.
Early settler's home.
Notched logs formed the cabin walls of settlers' new living quarters. A ridgepole at the peak supported lighter roof poles, and a bark thatching made the roof complete. Logs, split into flat-faced planks called puncheons, were used to make the cabin floor. Two openings, a window and a door, were sawed out with patient labor. Typically the first doorway covering was an old quilt weighted with a log; later a board door would be hung on leather hinges. The first window covering was greased paper, which turned away wind and water and admitted a dim light. 

To pioneer people, "book l'arnin'" was less important than learning to use an ax and a plow, a loom and a spinning wheel. But as settlements grew, parents wanted their children to know the three R's. In crude log schoolhouses, shelves fastened to the wall served for desks and the students sat on three-legged stools. They used charcoal to write on hand-smoothed writing boards. Later came slates and slate pencils. A slate, wiped clean after each lesson, could be used for years.

They were still using slate boards when my mother and father started school in Dresden, circa 1905.

I strongly suspect that the first three generations of Wrights on Canadian soil received little in the way of formal schooling. The first to reach academic heights may well have been Thomas Wright, born 1788, the youngest son of Henry and Mary.  Thomas not only attended high school in nearby Sandwich but he was a qualified land surveyor and civil engineer. He was no doubt the first to leave the family farm and was a long-serving and celebrated treasurer of Essex County.

  • By the late 1880’s, Essex County had grown to include fur trading, logging, land clearing, farming, road building, railway development, saw mills and gristmills, railway stations and water ports. Another Wright offspring, Peter Wright Jr. of Gosfield South, son of Peter Sr. (1806-1855) and grandson of Henry, served as one of the early wardens of the county in 1888. 
  • The Historical Atlas of Essex and Kent Counties, 1880-1881, paid the following special attention to the Wright family.  "The Wright family is also deserving of mention for the conspicuous part played by its members in the general programs of progress in the locality of the Lake Shore. They were among the first to locate in the township and from the date of their settlement to the present, this name has been closely connected with the advancement of its material interests...Mr. Henry Wright, now of Malden, a grandson of the original settler here of that name, occupied the office of Reeve of Colchester during a term of many years, and the present incumbent of the office is another of his family, Mr. Peter Wright."
  • At some point Peter's brother William Wright donated a portion of his farm, Concession 1, Lot 40, for the creation of the Iler Settlement Baptist (New) Cemetery, one of some 30 cemeteries now in the Essex area.
  • I was delighted to come across a 600-page Commemorative Biographical Record of Essex, Ontario, "Sketches of prominent and representative citizens and many of the early settled families," published in 1905.  The following extract is the impressive and detailed entry for the Wright family with Great Uncle Arthur as the subject:
  • "ARTHUR WRIGHT, a well-known citizen of Colchester South, is a worthy representative of one of the pioneer families of the township, and is of pure English extraction. Henry Wright, his great-grandfather, was born and reared in England, and in young manhood emigrated to America, settling at Rutland, Pennsylvania. There he married Mary Klingensmith. Being a United Empire Loyalist, he left Pennsylvania and removed to Canada when trouble arose between the colonies and the mother country. he had a brother, however, who remained in the States.
    "Henry Wright lived for a short time at Grosse Ile, but left there as soon as he discovered that it was not English soil, and then settled at Malden, on the Big Creek, later moving to the lake shore, where he took up land. Here his death occurred and here he was buried. His children, all born before his removal to Canada, were as follows: William married Betsy Lipps (he became the grandfather of Ellis L. Wright); Philip married (first) Miss Dowler, and (second) Delilah Malott, and became the grandfather of our subject; Henry married (first) Miss Hitchcock, by whom he had one daughter, Deborah, who married Matthew McCormick, and (second) Hannah Lipps; Thomas married (first) Jennie Little, (second) Mary Leighton, and (third) Abbie Larabie; Betsy married John Brush; Mary married Asa Wilcox; Mattie married Samuel Watson; Katie married Henry Lipps. 
    "Philip Wright, the grandfather of Arthur Wright, was born Jan. 5, 1775, at Rutland, Pennsylvania, and came with his parents to Grosse Ile, and later to Malden, where he was first married. The daughter of this first union was Anna, born March 30, 1796, who married Capt. John McCormick. His second marriage was to Delilah Malott, who was born June 30, 1786, on Grosse lie, and they had the following children: Lucy, born Nov. 28, 1802, married Isaac Ferriss; Catherine was born Nov. 18, 1804; Peter, born Sept. 30, 1806, married Betty Snider ; William, born Nov. 14, 1808, was twice married, first to a Miss Buchanan, and died in the States; Sarah, born Nov. 12, 1811, is the widow of Charles Larrabee, and at the age of ninety- three is still in the possession of unimpaired faculties; Philip S., born Dec. 4, 1813, married Mary Quick; Theodore, born Nov. 10, 1816, married Arabella Leighton, and they reside at Ludington, Michigan; Ebenezer, born Sept. 20, 1818, is mentioned below; Mary Christine, born Oct. 16, 1820, married Thomas Leighton, and died at Wyandotte, Michigan; Susannah, born Dec. 9, 1824, married Peter Larrabee and died in the States. The father of this family died Sept. 30, 1849. 
    "Being of age when he came to Colchester South township, Philip Wright received a 200- acre grant of land adjoining that of his father, but for a time all lived under one roof. When he started independently he took the rear half of Lots 75 and 76, arid upon Lot 75 chose a most desirable site for his home. This spot is now marked by a pear tree, and a few rods south of the spot is located a fine spring, which is stoned to a depth of twelve feet and flows sixty-five barrels every twenty-four hours. In the log house here erected, many, if not all, of the numerous family were born. The place is further marked by a stately elm, measuring seventeen feet in circumference, which towers over and shades the spring, and it is stated on good authority that this tree was planted by the daughter Lucy. At that time it was but a small shoot, which was guarded with care; its roots were nourished by the spring which it was designed to shade, and it stands a living memento of a generation almost faded away. 
    "H. Ebenezer Wright, of the above family, father of Arthur Wright, was born Sept. 20, 1818, in the old house near the spring, and spent his life on that farm, where he died Feb. 28, 1900. He married Eliza Stockwell, born Aug. 22, 1818, who died May 18, 1881. He occupied the old French frame house that was built nearly seventy years ago, which he later moved nearer to the Potleg road, and which is still standing, although not now occupied as a residence. Some two years ago our subject built a fine modern home. Ebenezer Wright received the west half of Lot 76, and gave his whole attention to farming, reaping much success. In his political views he was a Reformer. Religiously he belonged to the Methodist Church. 
    "To Ebenezer Wright and his wife were born the following-named children: Salathiel, who lives in Gosfield South, married (first) Lucinda Bertrand, by whom he had five children, and (second) Barbara Shaw, by whom he had two children. Annie is the widow of Sidney Patton, of Harrow, and has five children. Wesley, a farmer of  Dresden, County of Kent, married three times, and had three children. Arthur is the subject of this sketch. Burwell, a barber of Harrow, married Minnie Bingham. Erie died at the age of three years.
    Photo of Arthur Wright and his wife Melinda
    McCormick, with thanks to Rick McCormick
    of St. Cathernes.
    "Arthur Wright was born May 25, 1855, at the old home farm, where he was reared through a healthy boyhood, spent much in the open air, to a sturdy manhood. He attended the local schools up to the age of sixteen and then began to assume charge of a great part of the agricultural development of the farm. He now owns the homestead, and there are few farms in the township more valuable as to location or productiveness. Mr. Wright devotes himself to a general line of farming, and successfully raises the grains, vegetables and fruits of the climate. Politically Mr. Wright, like his father, is a member of the Reform Party. Fraternally he belongs to the Order of Workmen and is a valued and useful member of the local agricultural society.  He is a practical, well-informed, up-to-date farmer, whose methods are founded on knowledge of climate and soil, and whose success demonstrates their value."
      Here is another newspaper clipping on the death of Burwell Wright, 1858-1908, another of my grandfather Wesley's brothers. The detail in this account is incredible and substantiates much of the Wright family information on this site.

As published in the Amherstburg Echo, July 24, 1908

A tribute to the Wright women

Once again, I have to give credit to great-great-great grandmother Mary and great-great grandmother Delilah who between them raised 21 children under extremely difficult conditions.  It stands to reason that those Wrights would grow into solid citizens making a major contribution to the development of the settlement and Essex County in general as the years have passed.  The following charts graphically illustrate the necessity of family teamwork and the food that fuelled hard-working bodies in those early days of life in the new Canada ...Our Home and Native Land.

Note monument made of white marble
slab, reflective of fine art and carving
techniques typical of the period

As best as I can determine, great grandfather
Ebenezer (son of Philip and Delilah), was a quiet, unassuming type of individual who may have worked his farm along with several other Wright properties in the Colchester South area. He married Eliza Stockwell, also of Colchester South, November 12, 1841.  Eliza was the twin daughter (Mary the other, may not have survived birth) of John and Nancy Agnes (McCormick) Stockwell. The senior Stockwell who would be my great-great grandfather, was also a Loyalist, having served as a private in the Capt. Louis de Joncaire de Chabert Company of Detroit, Mich. and later obtained a Lake Erie land grant (Lot 74) in 1790. He was a slave owner of record. *It is likewise interesting to note that John Stockwell was "brought to trial by Simon Girty and Alexander McKee 1789 in Detroit, Wayne, Michigan, USA to secure the release of Mary Moore being held as a white slave. She was an Indian captive and sold to J.S. (John) for a few gallons of rum. J.S. accused of very abusive treatment." Source: The Captive of Abb's Valley by James Moore Brown. **Mary Moore who served as a housekeeper and servant, was subsequently released by the trial judge with no compensation to Stockwell.  NOTE:  In truth, another research revelation that is not without shock value for this writer...It is understood that Stockwell did not "buy" Mary Moore directly from the Indians, rather from a fellow settler who had first rescued her from captivity.  Simon Girty (***see attached site page) acted on behalf of Mary Moore's brother James (himself a one-time Indian captive) who had solicited assistance in freeing his sister from Stockwell's hold.  I resist the impulse to elaborate further as it would contributed little to The Wright Story.

Quite remarkably, the rough-and-ready John Stockwell sired 15 children, nine by first wife Elizabeth Loveless (1762-1804) and six by a much younger Nancy Agnes McCormick (1785-1818). It is curious that both John and Nancy Agnes (43 years his junior) both died on the same date -- October 12, 1818 -- mere weeks after the birth of Liza.

Ebenezer and Eliza had five children, including my grandfather Wesley C. Wright (1852-1920). Ebenezer (1818-1900) and Eliza (1818-1881) are both buried in Erie Memorial Gardens, Colchester South, which was amalgamated with the Town of Essex in 1990.
Wesley Wright (1852-1920)

I think that it was Wesley's original intention to maintain family tradition by continuing to farm in Colchester South.  He married 18-year-old Mary Klie, February 9, 1875. The circumstance are unknown, but Mary died within weeks of the marriage.

Again details are lacking, but five years later Wes married a widow, Annie Furey/Wright, daughter of Dawn Township farmer Nicholson and Elizabeth Furey, October 14, 1879.  The couple first lived in nearby Bothwell before moving permanently to Dresden. They had two sons -- Owen Brice and Ebby Earl.  Annie passed away in 1894, leaving Wes a widower for the second time.

Spinster Louise Reddick, (1861-1932) daughter of Irish immigrants James and Catherine Hewitt Reddick of Sombra, came into Wesley's life a year or so later and they were married May 12, 1896.  My father Kenneth Wright entered the world in January of 1899. Wesley, a gentleman farmer of sorts, made a living as a financier loaning money and holding mortgages on a number of Kent and Lambton County properties.  He passed away in 1920 and Louise followed 12 years later. Wes, Annie, Louise, father Kenneth and mother Grace all rest in a family plot in the Dresden Cemetery.
Louise and Wesley Wright
Regretfully, I have never met another living, breathing Wright descendant outside of my own small immediate family circle and I am not likely to do so, yet somehow I feel that I know each and every one of them.  Even grandparents Wesley and Louise had passed on long before I was born in 1938, although I was raised in their heritage home in Dresden. Wesley and his wives Annie and Louise, Nelson and Harriet Perry (grandparents on my mother's side), and parents Grace and Ken Wright all died in that old home, circa 1860, on Sydenham Street. It was not uncommon for the deceased to rest in the family home for public visitation and the actual funeral service itself.  After my mother passed away, I sold the house and property. I don't go back there anymore...Just too many ghosts, I guess!  .

I talk about my parents and life in Dresden on another blog site "Father and Son Turn Back the Clock"  Also "The Perry's: My Other Half"

My dad, who attempted to do a little family research in the 1940s before the advent of computers, was not privy to Wright background much beyond his grandfather Ebenezer. He did, however, suggest to me that Irish, English, German, Pennsylvania Dutch, French -- and even some Spanish -- blood flowed through our veins.  He may welI have known more than he told me. Nevertheless, I have been accepted into a Wright DNA Project, and have been motivated to determine the accuracy of his claim.

As a family and as a country, we've come a long way babe!  The Wright Story has it all -- a mix of British loyalty, family togetherness, mystery, juvenile felony, white slavery, pioneer spirit, farm land development, early community leadership -- you name it!  And just think, some of us would not be here today had it not been for an impoverished 18 year old boy presumably committing a petty crime in England more than 250 years ago and being banished across an ocean to a "new world" that would lead to a new life, the like of which you only read about in story books.

As a tribute to my great-great-great grandfather Henry Wright, great-great grandfather John Stockwell, and subsequent family members, I have been proud and honored to be accepted as a certified member of the United Empire Loyalist Association of Canada.


From time to time I hear from very keen kindred-spirit Wright "cousins" who have traced their family lineage back to good old Henry Sr. and I appreciate it very much.

Here is one that particularly caught my interest and for obvious reasons: "Hi Dick! I was so happy to run across your Blog and "The Wright Story" recently. I am Dick Wright,  your Second Cousin Twice Removed! While I had recently found the details of Henry Wright, my 5th Great Grandfather's "journey" to the United States and later Canada it was great to hear the information you provided as well. My 3rd Great Grandfather is Theodore Wright, Ebenezer's older brother. One of the things that started my family history research was my middle name. My Dad had told me that the name 'Owen' goes way back. Well I looked into it and it only went back to my Great Grandfather. So I asked my Grandpa and he said he wasn't sure because when he ran across a thief in the family he stopped researching. Then I see in your lineage there is a Owen Wright listed. These are the little nuggets I enjoy discovering in my research. I also for the first time saw the title of Reverend for Theodore Wright. I am looking looking forward to reading your other blogs as I am also a baseball enthusiast."

Teresa Wright Meeker of Fruitland, Idaho and Shelley Wright of Calgary, Alta, are also two recent examples of individuals who share identical earlier ancestors, branching off at Melburn Wright. Here is the breakdown on each of their family lines as forwarded to me.

 Teresa's lineage:

Henry Wright & Mary Christina Klingensmith, 5th great grandparents

F. Philip Wright & Delilah Mallot, 4th great grandparent

Phillip S. Wright & Mary Anne Quick, 3rd great grandparents

Ebenezar A. Wright & Harriet Halstead, 2nd great grandparents

Melburn Wright (b 1859) & Mary Ann McCarthy, great grandparents

Leo Harry Wright & Giaesmina "Jean" Inez Mascetti, grandparents

Ronald Lloyd Wright & Lorretta Barrentine, parents

Shelley's lineage:

    Henry Wright & Mary Christina Klingensmith, 5th great grandparents

    F. Philip Wright & Delilah Mallot, 4th great grandparent

    Philip S. Wright &  Mary Ann Quick, 3rd great grandparents

    Ebenezar A. Wright & Harriet Halstead, 2nd great grandparents

    Melburn Wright (b 1859) &  Mary Ann McCarthy, great-grandparents

    Harold Nelson Wright & Jenie Holmstrom, grandparents

    Martin Wright & Annette Ulasik, parents

Here is a very special photo, originally the property of Teresa Wright, showing her great Grandfather Melburn Wright (left), his sons Lawrence and Harold with wife and great grandmother Mary Ann. Melburn and Mary Ann are also great grandparents of Shelley Wright. 

Ebenezer and Harriet Wright celebrated their 64th
wedding anniversary in February, 1921. This is a clipping 
from the Amherstburg Echo newspaper published a few 
weeks later. Ebenezer and Harriet were the parents of
Melburn Wright shown in the photo above this one. 
*Note from Dick: This particular Ebenezer (1836-1924)
would have been the nephew of my great grandfather H. 
Ebenezer Wright (1818-1900) who was a brother of Philip S. Wright.

...attributed to Author: Della M. Cumming ca. 1943.

Where did the pioneers come from? Where did they settle? Who was already there? How did the pioneers use the land? How was water important? What was it ..